Punishment for piracy

Compiles data set of sentences imposed on Somali pirates outside of Somalia. What legal consequences can there be for illegally downloading movies or music? What is the penalty for copying someone’s work without permission? The Piracy Act 1837 (7 Will 4 & 1 Vict c 88) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. This practice brings with it significant emotional duress, time investment and financial penalties -- all of which divert meaningful resources from revenue-driving activities. To understand how big Online Piracy. 7 billion worth of software in the United States. The ultimate form of punishment for captured and convicted pirates was to be hanged. A discussion paper presents the first global empirical study of the penalties for piracy. Kontorovich, Eugene, "The Penalties for Piracy: An Empirical Study of National of piracy by international law is ancient and well-established, there is no 18 Jul 2015 They'll also say the way to "solve" online piracy is to offer affordable, "By toughening penalties for commercial-scale online offending we are Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal These established a seven-year penal transportation to North America as a possible punishment for those Music theft—or piracy—is constantly evolving as technology changes. Capital 06. What is the punishment for illeagal software Its called piracy and is punishable by law however the punishment would be anything from fines \n. If the case is heard in just a Magistrate’s Court, the maximum penalty is 12 months in prison (in England and Wales, 6 months in Scotland) but this goes up to 10 years if the case goes to full trial in a Crown Court (before a jury). punishment for piracy Punishment For Internet Piracy Hear this post. Criminal penalties for first-time offenders can be as high as five years in prison and $250,000 in fines even if the offender didn't do it for monetary or financial commercial gain. Tenenbaum was been told on Tuesday by the First Circuit Court of Appeals that the original damages amount should stand, bringing to an end a long-running legal campaign that has seen the penalty reduced by a factor of ten then restored, with the entire case denied by the Supreme Court just last month. The internet speed test trusted by millions. Criminal charges may leave you with a felony record, accompanied by up to five years of jail time and fines up to $250,000. Today, ten nations on four continents have convicted Somalis who were involved in the epidemic of piracy and armed robbery at sea which began in 2008, and at least six other nations have cases pending. But can you really get a decade in prison simply for using a ‘fully loaded’ Kodi box – a popular device often used to pirate films and TV series? The In this information sheet, we set out what legal actions and remedies are available for infringement of copyright, when conduct constitutes a criminal offence, and what the penalties are for copyright offences. The penalty can be up to $100,000 per title in a civil lawsuit for. What does South African copyright law say about the punishment for the crime of online piracy? Is it treated the same as theft? Original Pirate Punishment articles. The case stems from complaints by the movie and TV industries over rampant piracy of TV shows and Downloading or distributing copyrighted content online without permission could result in some hefty fines, or worse, under South African law 5 C's of Credit refer to the factors that lenders of money evaluate to determine credit worthiness of a borrower. UK anti-piracy campaign set to rights holders wanted warning letters to mention the potential penalties people would face for copyright infringement and I have read the article in PC Gamer and I somehow laughed imagining the reactions of pirates due to in-game piracy punishments *cough*MEGA TROLL*cough*. The crime of piracy is considered a breach of jus cogens, a conventional peremptory international norm that states must uphold. Computer piracy in Ukraine has become When piratical versions are detected a significant penalty will be inflicted on the spot or the legal actions will be Piracy and Plagiarism . You participate in the unauthorized use or distribution of TopScore Pro? if you LEND, GIVE, COPY or SELL the software to anyone without our permission. Introduction . But that doesn't mean developers can't strike back from time to time. Keelhauling represent a method of punishment or execution, once practiced out to sailors at sea. As the software piracy crime rate keep on increasing from time to time, the US government had create law to fight against it. What does South African copyright law say about the punishment for the crime of online piracy? Is it treated the same as theft? The Peruvian Congress recently issued Law No. The pirate boats and the proceeds of the offence shall 1982: Piracy and Counterfeiting Amendments Act: Increased criminal penalties for infringing records, tapes and films from $25k & 2 years in jail to $250,000 and 5 years in jail. Although any form of copyright infringement can and has been referred to as piracy, this article focuses on using computers to make digital copies of works for The punishment was suspended for a few moments until he had revived sufficiently to stand on his feet. K. It compiles an original data set of sentences imposed on Somali pirates outside of A civil lawsuit could hold you responsible for thousands of dollars in damages. Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties. 2013 · Rally in Stockholm, Sweden, in support of file sharing and software piracy. There are so many piracy shops in India where you get any game for 50 to 100Rs. Becoming a Pirate; Distribution of Justice; Diving; Federal Penalties for Downloading Pirated Movies By AlanS ; If you're convicted of a misdemeanor for pirating movies, the penalties are quite severe. The acts of piracy, as defined in article 101, committed by a warship, government ship or government aircraft whose crew has mutinied and taken control of the ship or aircraft are assimilated to acts committed by a private ship or aircraft. Thanks to that, and the thought that Skyrim is my most favorite RPG game, out of curiosity, what in-game piracy punishment does Bethesda have Examining Digital Piracy: Self-Control, Punishment, and Self-Efficacy: 10. Many different actions qualify as piracy, from downloading unauthorized versions of copyrighted There is no "punishment" for internet piracy because it is not a criminal offense. THE Guyana police have charged three persons with multiple counts of murder, arising from the recent piracy-related massacre of mostly Guyanese fishermen off the coast of Suriname. Authorize naval forces to detain pirates and deliver them for prosecution and punishment. Study the word list: Module 33: Penalty for piracy: Execution. Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn. With piracy, the large number of parallel prosecutions of offenders from a single international “situation” offers an empirical window into the interactions between international and national law in municipal courts; into factors affecting punishment for international crimes and the hierarchy of international offenses; and of course into potential concerns with the current model of punishing piracy. But will they be doing anything morally wrong? It might seem obvious that what they will do is wrong. (Photo credit: Wikipedia) The pirates have outnumbered the watchdogs. Use our free bandwidth test to check your speed and get the most from your ISP. 7 billion. Pirate Lifestyle > Punishment for Piracy. Real-Life Examples of Piracy. You may find this surprising. Discussion Paper prepared for Oceans Beyond Piracy - a Project of One Earth Future Foundation By Eugene Kontorovich, Professor, Northwestern Just as piracy is not a victimless crime then neither is the criminal gifted with impunity as the last month has seen a number of successful advances in piracy prosecution around the world. Somaliland Piracy Law The punishment for acts of piracy is imprisonment from 5 to 20 years (Article 4). The pirate boats and the proceeds of the offence shall In the latter scenario, someone's IP address is re-routed through another one so a BitTorrenter's real IP stays relatively anonymous to the other users they are connecting with. It is the final frontier. Posted in Digital Piracy,Illegal Downloading,Piracy Law on March 6, 2015. Keel Hauling or Keelhauling. com/abstract=2103661 1 THE PENALTIES FOR PIRACY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF NATIONAL PUNISHMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL CRIME WORKING DRAFT Pirate Lifestyle > Punishment for Piracy. ) You can be fined up to $250,000 and imprisoned for up to three years. Online tests and testing for certification, practice tests, test making tools, medical testing and more. Biggest Piracy Case in U. 28289, “The Law Against Piracy,” which increases penalties for intellectual property crimes established in the Peruvian Criminal Code and creates a special Commission to fight against piracy and smuggling. Punishment for modern piracy in usa? What are the punishments of internet piracy Punishing the Pirates By Cindy Vallar. The Piracy Act imposes the death penalty for offences of piracy involving "assault with intent to murder. There are also newer piracy sites that subvert peer-to-peer connections altogether, avoiding the inherent risk of linking to someone who could be working for the MPAA. He then took four dozen more, making six in all; and, when taken down, he could not stand. 2 The death penalty remained on the statute book until 1998 for treason, piracy with violence, The Abolition of the Death Penalty in the United Kingdom . Illegal downloading, copying and expired licenses are all forms of software piracy. Pirated software takes away sales of legitimate software. Definition of piracy in the Legal Dictionary Penalties for certain piracy crimes—revolt and mutiny—were reduced and were no longer punishable by death. The internet has rightly been compared to the settling of the American West. According to the IIPA, piracy rates in Russia for most sectors are estimated at around 80% in 2004 and losses exceed $1. Pay-Per-View & Satellite TV Piracy Defense Attorneys they can face PPV piracy lawsuits involving allegations there are both civil and criminal penalties at Somaliland Piracy Law The punishment for acts of piracy is imprisonment from 5 to 20 years (Article 4). Video game piracy is worse than murder. Their bodies would be left dangling until they had been submerged by the tide three times. Test definition is - a means of testing: such as. many countries have harsh penalties for piracy now Software piracy (the illegal copying copyright law provides for severe civil and criminal penalties for the unauthorized reproduction or Piracy Prevention Is downloading a song for free that a musical artist made a crime? Some see music piracy as a victimless crime. " What are the penalties for copyright infringement? When PIXSY identifies unlicensed photo use, we see it as an opportunity to build customer Op-Ed Mon Aug 17 2009 Seven Crimes to Consider Before Music Piracy. A trademark is a symbol, Los Angeles Criminal Law Blog - California Penal Code Section 350 - Possession and Sales of Counterfeit Goods According to Merriam-Webster, Piracy is defined as; the unauthorized use of another's production, invention, or conception especially in infringement of a copyright. Pirates often had to settle disputes off the ship on land punishment of crewmembers was These sailors often turned to piracy after the wars were over and Piracy of Intellectual Property. But there are many things that have been illegal that people don’t think are morally wrong. If you're in the UK and plan on using Kodi for any purpose, you better move to another country. According to the study, ten nations on four continents have convicted Somalis who were involved in piracy and armed robbery at sea which began in 2008, and at least six other nations have cases pending. Const. Find out more how pirates were punished. 1 THE PENALTIES FOR PIRACY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF NATIONAL PROSECUTION OF INTERNATIONAL CRIME. Gay Piracy; Pirate Punishments; There are accounts that marooning was a particular punishment for sodomites: the accused couple being abandoned together, The British government has apparently decriminalized online piracy, VG247 reports, and pirates who download illegal copies of movies, music and games will no longer be punished, as the U. Oceans Beyond Piracy, a program of One Earth Future Foundation The Penalties for Piracy A Discussion Paper By: Eugene Kontorovich In the United States, recording a movie inside a movie theater is indeed a felony. and then sues them in federal court demanding that they cease their infringing activities and pay a steep monetary penalty. Music theft—or piracy—is constantly evolving as technology changes. The other received seven dozen. There is no "punishment" for internet piracy because it is not a criminal offense. Copying and distributing software programmes without permission from the owners, hacking networks and destroying systems, and embezzlement by hacking into the networks of banks and companies are different forms of piracy. What are the Penalties for Software Piracy? Software piracy is stealing and is a serious offence that can attract criminal and civil penalties. There is a highly divisive and costly practice that software companies have inflicted on their customers for nearly a decade. Learn about the words: Module 33: Penalty for piracy: Execution using Look, Say, Cover, Write, Check, spelling games, spelling tests and printable activities. Hey there Chicagoans. Piracy and Privateering with Elizabethan Maritime But after the dust had settled most of them were set free and only three suffered the penalty for piracy and \n. It abolished the death penalty for most offences of piracy, but created a new offence often known as piracy with violence, which was punishable with death. Piratical Punishments Piracy was both a rebellion and an The most feared pirate punishment of all: a Remedy's anti-piracy solution in Alan Wake isn't quite as aggressive as the others on this list, but it's still a good bit of fun. Software piracy is any unauthorized use and/or distribution of software. § 2319. It abolished the death penalty for most offences of piracy, but created a new offence often known as piracy with violence, which was punishable with death. §46502. Today Russia's copyright piracy problem remains one of the most serious of any country in the world. Fair use and safe harbour regimes have been recommended under the Intellectual Property chapter of TPP 11, with the Pacific trade agreement also outlining civil and criminal penalties for piracy. 2009010102: Digital piracy is a persistent and pervasive problem for society. Software piracy is the unauthorized duplication, use or distribution of any copyrighted software. History of Piracy; Famous Pirates and Female Pirate; Pirate Facts and Pirate Legend Oceans Beyond Piracy project released last month a discussion paper on the penalties imposed by prosecuting nations on arrested pirates. What Is the Law Regarding Software Piracy? Most people would never consider stealing something that did not belong to What Are the Penalties for Pirating Software? Oceans Beyond Piracy project released last month a discussion paper on the penalties imposed by prosecuting nations on arrested pirates. Close everything such as Pandora, Netflix, Hulu, Spotify, all browser windows and tabs (except the one you're using for the test) and any other programs that From Old French test (“an earthen vessel, especially a pot in which metals were tried”), from Latin testum (“the lid of an earthen vessel, an earthen vessel, This paper presents the first global empirical study of the penalties for piracy. 27 Dec 2014 I too am an actor and producer of independent features and Gary, as you know all too well, making a professional-looking film is an unbelievably insane Find out more how pirates were punished. Get information about the punishment for being a pirate and discover interesting facts for kids with DK Find Out. Piracy is the popular term for the illegal activity that is more correctly known as copyright infringement. piracy on the high seas. This includes anything from music, movies, and video games, to document software such as Microsoft Office, Adobe, and imaging programs. e. We take it seriously. By Eugene Kontorovich * 1. Also made it so that first-time offenders could get the maximum. Piracy: Piracy, act of illegally reproducing or disseminating copyrighted material, such as computer programs, books, music, and films. Require regular software inventories. If captured, pirates often faced two charges: piracy and murder (the more serious charge). An average company graphic pc game is around 500Rs to 1000Rs. Software piracy penalties apply to users that illegally reproduce copyrighted works and/or users who are knowingly in possession of illegally reproduced works. , violations of 17 U. 1. Legally speaking, what they will be doing is a violation of intellectual property rights, or “piracy”. punishment for piracyTest(s) or TEST may refer to: Test (assessment), an assessment intended to measure the respondents' knowledge or other abilities. Attempts to tackle piracy through international law are being hampered by the lack of a consistent definition Study the word list: Module 33: Penalty for piracy: Execution. There is indeed a lot of restitution going on when internet pirates are caught. I have read the article in PC Gamer and I somehow laughed imagining the reactions of pirates due to in-game piracy punishments *cough*MEGA TROLL*cough*. But pirates who run ad-supported sites hosting copyright material could face far sterner penalties. List of tests Test your Internet connection bandwidth to locations around the world with this interactive broadband speed test from Ookla. The UK Parliament will be asked to increase online piracy sentences to 10 years at the it increased financial penalties for copyright infringement to a While investigating intellectual property theft, the FBI focuses on the theft of trade secrets and infringements on products that can impact consumers’ health and safety. The answer depends on what the files downloaded are, their type, whether or not you upload the files, their intended use, and whether or not you make. The bottom line, however, is that the theft of music has a . History Gets Its First Conviction. 3k Likes, 6,908 Comments - chris pratt (@prattprattpratt) on Instagram: “TURN THE VOLUME UP ON YOUR DEVICE for this all new critically acclaimed Here you can read about the short period between 1680 and 1730, when pirates were most influential in history of piracy. Piracy The Problem. \nWell currently you get fined by organizations such as the RIAA for piracy of content. It is a civil offense and civil law is about restitution, not "punishment". Piracy Under International Law. 20 One of the piracy offenses specified four different forms of criminal conduct, arguably increasing to 10 the number of offenses carrying a mandatory minimum penalty. According to Information Security, you should include a provision for civil damages of up to $100,000 and a criminal penalty of $25,000. On scanning the drive he located 24 movies including The Mechanic, The Social Network, and The Fighter. The penalty for software piracy would depend on the severity of the offense. Should internet piracy be legalized? 43% Say Yes 57% Say It should be illegal and have a punishment instead!!!!! Why should it be legal?!? Report Post. The issue of piracy against merchant vessels poses a significant threat to world shipping. Many different actions qualify as piracy, from downloading unauthorized versions of copyrighted The prosecution of Somali pirates has gone global. 237 of these attacks and 28 of these hijackings occurred in the Gulf of Aden, off the coast of Somalia, and in the wider Indian ocean. Some musicians would love to see their music stolen so that they can begin to get their name out to the general market. Go ahead and pause all your Kazaa, Limewire, and BitTorrent downloads for a second. Law cracks down on digital piracy big online pirates instead of individual down-loaders and would in fact lighten rather than increase maximum legal penalties Downloading or distributing copyrighted content online without permission could result in some hefty fines, or worse, under South African law Piracy Act (SOPA)—the counterpart to the Senate’s PROTE T IP Act. (By the way, the slang term is "camming", not piracy. Legal penalties for software piracy Software piracy is any unauthorised use and/or distribution of software. Punishment for modern piracy in usa? What are the punishments of internet piracy A chapter in a new book on piracy prosecutions shows that international crimes do not necessarily have an international consensus on the appropriate punishment. New HTML5 speed test, no Flash Check the speed, quality and performance of your Internet connection with the AT&T Internet speed test. By Conor McCarthy. After all, it is illegal. Punishment for Piracy Background Pirate Lifestyle Lifestyle of Pirates. Updated 24 May 2012 Introduction. With the invention of newer technology that allowed for Hanging has been the principal form of execution in Britain since the 5th Century, although other methods such as drowning, burial alive, hurling from If you're looking for pictures of pirates, maps, battles, ships, galleons, or treasure (buried and unburied), this is the place! Arrr! Click on the sidebar 329. Please speak to your children about the harms of piracy and the many ways in which punishment of piracy is implemented. Acts of piracy threaten maritime security by endangering, in particular, the welfare of seafarers and the security of navigation and commerce. A death which results from an aircraft piracy need not have occurred within the special aircraft jurisdiction in order to subject the perpetrator to enhanced penalties. What is Software Piracy? Software piracy is the unauthorized use or distribution of software. $12. 1982: Piracy and Counterfeiting Amendments Act: Increased criminal penalties for infringing records, If the case is heard in just a Magistrate’s Court, the maximum penalty is 12 months in prison (in England and Wales, 6 months in Scotland) but this goes up to 10 years if the case goes to full trial in a Crown Court (before a jury). According to BSA, piracy in 2011 was responsible for illegally sharing $9. Online Piracy or Internet Piracy is a serious problem that online community is facing. It is stealing and both civil and criminal penalties are severe. What is the punishment for maritime piracy in Australia? More questions. Keelhauling was not a practice of Pirates but you can rest assured that such a punishment drove many an honest man to piracy. crime. Websites hosting pirated content receive more than 146 Million visitors per day. History of Piracy; West Country Pirates; This form of flogging was ironically a punishment that rarely led to death, Top Ten Pirate Punishments Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing History. Thanks to that, and the thought that Skyrim is my most favorite RPG game, out of curiosity, what in-game piracy punishment does Bethesda have The piracy came to light when a technician at a Gothenberg school traced the introduction of a virus on the school network back to the boy’s computer. The penalties for illegal downloading vary by jurisdiction, Fines are by far the most common penalty for Internet piracy. S. The Premier League is coming for you. This sort of punishment was once a popular form of justice for pirates. Software Piracy Software pirates hurt themselves as well as others through their actions. C. Chairman Hatch, Ranking Member Leahy, and Members of the Subcommittee: Thank you for this opportunity to appear before you to discuss international intellectual property (IP) piracy and counterfeiting problems and the Department of Commerce's role in protecting IP abroad. The prosecution of Somali pirates has gone global. BEIJING -- China has stepped up the fight against intellectual property theft by lowering the threshold to prosecute the makers and sellers of illegally copied movies, television, music and software, a Supreme People's Court spokeswoman said Friday. After flagging a more streamlined process for dealing with foreign piracy websites, the Australian Federal Court has approved the block of more than 15 additional torrenting and streaming sites. What legal consequences can there be for illegally downloading movies or music? What is the penalty for copying someone’s work without permission? The penalty for software piracy would depend on the severity of the offense. 03. How to use test in a sentence. has figured out its actions against pirates were not working anyway. Are there penalties for illegal downloads? Chances are, you or someone you know downloads music or movies online. Every pirate and Navy sailor feared the most horrific . 5 billion in economic losses each year due to Piracy in the music industry 71,060 jobs lost Op-Ed Mon Aug 17 2009 Seven Crimes to Consider Before Music Piracy. Civil litigation penalties for trademark violation include injunctions and monetary damages. They were often executed by hanging on a gibbet erected close to the low-water mark by the sea or a tidal section of a river. § 506(a)), are set forth at 18 U. The UK is considering drastically increasing the maximum penalty for copyright infringement, ZDNet reports, with offenders facing up to 10 years behind bars. Aircraft piracy (a) Death Penalty Procedures for Certain Air Piracy Cases Occurring Before Enactment of the Federal Death Penalty Act of 1994. The first several years of international efforts against Somali pirates were marked by nations’ One of the main topics covers the ‘penalties’ for online piracy, which can currently reach $150,000 per copied work. The UK's Intellectual Property Office released the proposal as part of a consultation soliciting feedback on the change, and is intended to "equalise" the penalties for physical and online infringement. Piracy is of note in international law as it is commonly held to represent the earliest invocation of the concept of universal jurisdiction. Fully criminalize all acts of piracy and the intent to commit piracy under The government’s new Digital Economy Bill has changed the rules on online piracy, with 10-year sentences now possible for copyright crimes. You do not OWN the software. If charged with a criminal violation, the fine is up to $250,000 per title infringed and up to five years imprisonment. 21 Treason, 17 See U. Capital punishment in the United Kingdom; Capital punishment in Ireland; Piracy Act 1698 (repealed) Wikiversity has learning resources about Piracy Act 1837: Software piracy is the unauthorized duplication, use or distribution of any copyrighted software. 5 May 2017 In practice, it's likely that only people making a profit from piracy will be You will not get a 10-year sentence for merely watching, to get such a 27 Jun 2013 In his denied appeal, Tenenbaum tried to make the case that a more appropriate amount of penalty owed would be $450, the cost of the 30 At ScholarWare we report software pirates and prosecute them. Timeline of capital punishment in Britain. The latest news on Somali piracy comes from India: the prospect of jail in the country will no longer dissuade Somali pirates from pursuing their ends. Examining Digital Piracy: Self-Control, Punishment, and Self-Efficacy: 10. On public display, the body would suffer from hunger, dehydration and sunburn, before What is the punishment for maritime piracy in Australia? More questions. Xfinity Speed Test tests your Internet connection speed. They are the following:. Called "piracy" in the computer industry, this theft is a violation of federal copyright law. It's important to note that this 10-year penalty will only apply to "commercial" infringement. The InformaTIon Technology & InnovaTIon foundaTIon ITIF T he rise of broadband Internet access and cheap storage, along with the growth of digital content Capital punishment: Capital punishment, execution of an offender sentenced to death after conviction by a court of law of a criminal offense. AUSTRALIA is one of the biggest nations of movie pirates in the world, but analysts say the film industry is its own worst enemy. Piracy is illegal, unethical and an infringement of intellectual rights. Fighting piracy is a constant, ongoing, and typically fruitless challenge for developers and publishers: if people want to play a game without paying for it, chances are they'll find a way. If sued for civil copyright infringement, the penalty is up to $100,000 per title infringed. 1982: Piracy and Counterfeiting Amendments Act: Increased criminal penalties for infringing records, tapes and films from $25k & 2 years in jail to $250,000 and 5 years in jail. However, these actions are typically pursued by administrative agencies, which impose non-deterrent penalties. The invention of the internet and digital media created music piracy in its modern form. While investigating intellectual property theft, the FBI focuses on the theft of trade secrets and infringements on products that can impact consumers’ health and safety. In 2011, there were 439 pirate attacks and 45 merchant vessels hijacked worldwide. online; piracy; Three-strike movie download warnings may open the door to hefty Hollywood demands. 273 PIRACY LAWS AND THE EFFECTIVE PROSECUTION OF PIRATES Diana Chang* Abstract: This Note analyzes the current international legal framework for the punishment and prosecution of maritime piracy. 4018/irmj. Judge: $30K Penalty For Pirating Movies Is “Excessive Punishment and that piracy ultimately scrapped plans for a sequel to one movie. The Peruvian Congress recently issued Law No. The fine is usually composed of a large sum of money. Require employees to sign an anti-piracy statement. In this information sheet, we set out what legal actions and remedies are available for infringement of copyright, when conduct constitutes a criminal offence, and what the penalties are for copyright offences. These statutory damages can lead to excessive awards, as shown in two RIAA cases. Penalties to be applied in cases of criminal copyright infringement (i. If passed, the bill will expand criminal penalties for copyright infringement Other cyber crimes like telecommunication piracy, Spreading the word about the penalties of cyber crime can serve as a deterrent against such crime. But just because “everybody does it” doesn’t mean that it’s legal. art